Importance of Electrolysis

Next in our student series is Robert (Austin) Masters. He writes about his project conserving iron artifacts through electrolysis.

Importance of Electrolysis

Last semester I was fortunate to take Professor Seifert’s Historical Archaeology class at Armstrong State University and participated in digs at the Benedictine Monastery and Freedmen School site and the Sorrel Weed House. When I first registered, I was not sure if I would enjoy the class. After the first couple of classes and digs, I knew that I was interested in archaeology and wanted to do more.

At the very end of last semester, John Roberson, our consultant, set up an electrolysis system in the anthropology lab. The main reason that we perform electrolysis is to preserve metal artifacts. This process stops the oxidation in the artifact. Once we had the machine up and running, I wanted to help preserve some of the iron artifacts discovered at the Benedictine Monastery and Freedmen School site and the Sorrel-Weed House. These items include possible door hardware, a piece of a knife, springs from a mattress, and other iron objects. I am doing this project because preservation of artifacts is something that has interested me, and without the use of electrolysis, iron artifacts will continue to rust and will eventually turn into dust. By preserving these artifacts, it will allow us to study them and understand what they were used for and how they were used in the past.


Robert adds the sodium carbonate to the electrolysis system.

Electrolysis is used to preserve metal artifacts that have exposed to salt, either in the water or in the air. In simple terms, electrolysis is an oxidation reduction reaction. In the Armstrong lab, we have a simple plastic tank that can be found at many hardware stores. The tank contains the artifacts, which are connected to the negative side of the power source. The anode, which is a piece of iron rebar, is connected to the positive side of the power source. Both the rebar and artifacts are in a bath of electrolytes (water and Sodium Carbonate, Na2CO3). The length of time artifacts stay in the tank depends on the size and corrosion of the artifacts. Smaller artifacts may only stay in the tank for few weeks, while a cannon could take months to years to ensure the preservation of the artifact. Once the electrolysis is complete, the artifact is coated in epoxy to form a barrier between the artifact and oxygen. After electrolysis and coating, the artifact can either be placed on display in a museum or placed in a depository for further research down the road.


Iron artifact prior to conservation

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Hauntings in the Hostess City

Armstrong archaeology student Amelia Lux, a former walking tour guide, draws from her experiences at the Sorrel-Weed House to highlight the role archaeology plays in uncovering the Hostess City’s haunted history.

Hauntings in the Hostess City

As a tour guide in the historic district for three and a half months last summer (it turns out I wasn’t cut out for the heat, the walking, or all of the Forest Gump questions) I learned my fair share about Savannah’s charms and mysteries. I specialized in walking tours covering the general history of the city (yes, it was Georgia’s first city), the Civil War (yes, it was that Sherman), and the stories of ghosts that still linger here (well, no, I’ve never seen one personally… but!).

Savannah is home to a rich history, a flourishing culture, and some of the most beautiful sites the eye can behold. That’s not to say the city is without an ugly side; stories of deceit and betrayal, of crime and passion, and of lust, love, and murder swirl through the Spanish Moss-covered oaks in Wright Square, rise from the graves at Colonial Park cemetery, and peer from the upstairs balcony window of 432 Abercorn Street. Of all of the city’s ghostly tales, by far, the tour groups begged to hear most, was the story of the Sorrel-Weed House.

Legend has it (and by legend, I mean my 62-year-old tour mentor Willy) that the home was built in the mid-19th century by a wealthy plantation owner named Francis Sorrel. After the death of his wife, Lucinda, he married her younger sister, Matilda. Neither marriage was enough for Francis, whose heart belonged to one of his slaves, Molly. During the home’s construction, Francis requested a special carriage home for Molly, where the two could consummate their love under the veil of night. After the home’s completion, Matilda caught the pair together from the third story balcony, where she jumped to her death, shattering her skull on a large stone left from the build. Several weeks later, Francis’ lover Molly was found hanged in her room, where the two had solidified their love. Her death was ruled a suicide, though the suspicion of murder hung in the air.

While there is no way to re-piece the exact events from that night, archeology allows us to try. Currently, we are in the midst of a dig in the carriage house basement— the first-ever project of its kind to take place in the home. Last weekend I joined several of my peers in the excavation process. Though not many artifacts were found, a piece of porcelain and several iron pieces were collected. Additionally, we recorded the various measurements of our unit, and took several photographs detailing its stratigraphy, which could help corroborate the home’s haunted history, or reject it altogether.

Coming equipped with an expectation to see shadowy figures and hear faint cries for help, the day proved to be especially interesting for me. While I made a point to avoid being alone in the basement, nothing out of the ordinary was seen or heard. The experience did, however, alter my perception of the tourism industry in the city.

So much money is made by exploiting these homes for their history. We would be doing ourselves, and our visiting friends, a great service by performing digs at some of the city’s “most haunted” places in an effort to uncover the past, and, by giving a voice to the characters whose stories we love to tell, and retell, time and time again.

At the end of the day, I left with dirt on my shoes, (and, somehow in both my hair, and pants) as well as a new outlook on archaeology. I had spent my morning sifting through fresh dug-dirt, examining clumps of iron and coal, differentiating between the various layers of soil we’d uncovered, and trying to piece together what it all meant—before re-filling the unit (which I learned, is a crucial, and awful part of the process!) While we can expect lab results within a few weeks, the project is on-going, meaning I’ll have plenty of chances to go back and uncover more of what makes not only the Sorrel-Weed House so special, but also the sweet, southern city we call home.

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Op-Ed: Monumental History

Next in our student series, Logan Woods writes an opinion piece on Confederate Monuments, renaming “our” bridge, and how we need to memorialize history.

Op-Ed: Monumental History

Is it necessary to glorify our history in order to preserve it? In the modern political climate it is easy to find examples of history being ignored or erased. Recently, the news has been fueling a movement to remove Civil War era monuments. More specifically, it is Confederate monuments that are being or removed. Today we find historical sites and monuments being challenged. In the past if you didn’t like a monument you didn’t visit it. Currently, the trend is to have it destroyed.

If the primus for the argument is controversial monuments should not be funded by tax dollars, and we can accept that the government should not fund anything controversial, then yes, funding should be withdrawn. The funding is not truly the issue, however, because rather than allowing the states to sell off or privatize the sites, the goal is to erase them from history.

Politicians have also attempted to capitalize on the trend. To gain favor with potential voters, Georgia Gubernatorial candidate Stacey Abrams is currently calling for the removal of the reliefs of Stone Mountain. The logic that the reliefs should be removed because they represent men that supported slavery can then be applied to Mt. Rushmore, any monument to George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin or any other Founding Father. Their faces should then be removed from money, public spaces and any government buildings.

Not to be hypocritical, we must remember that the city of Savannah was pro-slavery and benefited from the practice. Following the logic of removing pro-slavery sites we are then obligated to tear down the Cotton Exchange and most of River Street, Wormsloe and Lebanon Plantation, Ft. Pulaski, the Davenport House, and most of the larger houses on Victory Dr. We can then dig up all of the town squares and cemeteries and pull up all of the railroad tracks that brought plantation goods from all over the state.

The bridge named after the racist Democratic governor Eugene Talmadge needs to be renamed, but the proposed name “The Savannah Bridge” is not appropriate. The name Savannah came from a name for the Shawnee, who invaded the area in the 1680’s, killing off the local tribes. Unlike Governor Talmadge, they did own slaves, thus making our city named after people that were pro slavery. Keeping with this logic still, we can rename our city and any of its streets and neighborhoods that have local Native Americans names. Since the Yamacraw were Creek, and Creek owned slaves, we need to rename Yamacraw Village too.

Any further funding to any archeological sites in Chatham County should be stopped and no government money should be allocated to any historical sites that were established prior to 1955. Any politician that supports preserving such sites should be labeled as pro-slavery. Finally, any books, movies or artifacts that mention anyone that benefited from slavery should be gathered in a pile and burned. Then we can pretend that there is nothing ugly in our past.

Unfortunately, when our children ask what the “Civil Rights Struggle” struggled against, who’s going to know? Who will know how far we’ve come? Or maybe we remember our past, but for what it is, in the context of what we’ve overcome as a nation.

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Discovering Archaeology

Our next student blogger is Nicole Wentz, who discusses her discovery of anthropology and archaeology during her college career.

I never really thought about what interested me until I actually came face to face with college and the “bigger picture”. I’d always been told I had a knack for drawing and assumed I’d just become an artist, simple as that. But did I really want to be told what to draw for the rest of my life? It was whilst pondering this question, slumped over on my parents’ couch, my mother made the offhand comment. “No, you know what you want to do? You want to be an archeologist. Like Josh Gates.” Josh gates just so happens to be the host of a few shows my mother and I used to love watching together: Destination Truth and Expedition Unknown.

Those words hit me like a sack of brick and all my thoughts came to a halt. Archaeology had never even crossed my mind. I enrolled in an Introduction to Anthropology class. It only fueled my growing curiosity and amazement. After spending almost 19 years filling my head with colors and shapes and lines, I felt as if I knew everything about art, that there was nothing left to teach me. My anthropology class did a complete 360° turn on my knowledge and suddenly I didn’t know anything. Everything was knew and everything amazed me. Now I know that despite common misconception, the cave man never existed and perhaps Homo sapiens did not arrive in the Americas from across the land bridge like I was previously taught in high school.

Next, I hopped right into Archaeology of the Southeast and immediately was intimidated. Everyone in the class seems to know so much more in this area of study, so I felt lost and very behind. Despite this, I wanted the experience and more importantly I wanted to know. I took the opportunity to participate in field work at both the Monastery site and the Sorrel-Weed House.

In Seifert’s Archaeology class, I’m getting to learn a deeper view of how people came to the Americas and how nomadic people developed into groups with diverse languages and complex social structures and evolved into civilizations like there are today. It’s incredible to think about how Pre-Clovis Native Americans created tools out of nothing but chert! Technology was built up from almost virtually nothing. Nothing but rock. Would you be able to have come up with the idea of striking rock to create something that had previously never existed before?

As I’m taking this class, I can’t help but find connections between all my classes that help a general understanding of history fall into place in my mind, instead of it being a jumbled mess of dates and events. I’m coming to understand how humans evolved and how many contributors are involved to get humanity to where it’s at today. Archaeology of the Southeast, Civilization 1, and Art History have all shown me how mind-blowing the development of early language and social structure is, along with upgrading technology and creating art and architecture. Really, it’s all so incredible!

In the field work, I’m getting a chance to rediscover history personally. This class has opened up a whole new set of opportunities. It’s all so very exciting, and there’s still a lot more to learn. History is always changing as archaeologists, anthropologists, and many more continue to ask how, why, when, and where. There’s much in this field of study that is still unknown, and so the people within this field continue to search for the answers.

So many people find history to be boring and not an area of interest that often times archaeology is completely overlooked as a subject, as I had at first. This is really such a shame as in reality this field of study is so important with ongoing projects all over the world. Professor Seifert’s attempts at spreading public awareness locally ought to be applauded and hopefully Digging Savannah will lead to support so one day Savannah will be more involved in archaeological matters, as this city has such a rich history waiting to be rediscovered and explored.

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Archaeology at an Aquarium?

Next up in our second student series is Rebecca Hinely, who loves taking her kids on field trips. This week she was surprised to find archaeology in an aquarium.

Archaeology at an Aquarium??

I took my children to visit the UGA Marine Education Center and Aquarium and was pleasantly surprised. Not only do they have a beautiful array of marine animals but they also have a section dedicated to archaeology of the Grove’s Creek area.
It was known that Native Americans inhabited the area but there was very little visible evidence. In 1986 Larry Babits, a local* archaeologist, began excavating Grove’s Creek hoping to find evidence of the wattle and daub construction that was used. Not only did he find what he was looking for, but he found many other interesting artifacts as well. These artifacts were curated, and some were set out for display at the aquarium.
Along the wall when you first enter sits a display of Native American artifacts ranging from tobacco pipes to Irene pottery dated between 1300AD and 1550AD. Some of the pottery is in such good condition you can clearly see the complicated stamped design on the outside. Several pieces even had the Filfot Cross design that was popular during this cultural period.
On the opposite wall is a fossilized Atlantic gray whale mandible that was found on JY Reef just off the coast of Georgia. This mandible was carbon dated to be approximately 41,000 years old. The display thoroughly explains the process of excavating underwater and how the mandible was dated, stored, and reassembled.
Thanks to these archaeologists (and their student helpers) we are able to understand our past a little better, and thanks to the UGA Marine Education Center and Aquarium, we are able to physically see it.

*Editor’s Note: Larry Babits was an Armstrong professor when conducting these digs. He is currently Professor Emeritus at East Carolina University.

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Historic Darien & McIntosh County

I have been extremely remiss about posting this semester’s student blog posts! First in this series is Kris Rice, who recommending many interesting ways to learn about archaeology and history in McIntosh County.

If you’re willing to venture a little farther than Chatham County for a taste of Georgia history and archaeology, plan a visit to McIntosh County—about an hour south of Savannah on I-95, or slightly more on US 17.

On the high bluffs of the Darien River, where a Guale Indian village, and subsequently, a Spanish mission, once stood, the British built Fort King George as a fortification against French and Spanish incursions in 1721.  The original fort burned in 1725, but has been meticulously reconstructed, including officers’ quarters, surgeon’s office, soldiers’ lodging and mess, blacksmith shop, and block house (an ammunition storage and defense structure).

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Fort King George blockhouse

A reconstructed wattle and daub hut, utilizing Guale building technology of vines and mud, is also on the grounds. Historic reenactments take place every first Saturday and on major holidays, thanks to the fort’s small but hard-working staff and corps of volunteers.  They also offer periodic kayak tours and provide paddling instruction in the river that fronts the fort.

395002-1289578 - Carol Rice - Sep 15, 2017 1116 AM - #2 wattle & daub cottage

Wattle and daub cottage

The visitors’ center (9am-5pm, Tues.-Sun.) contains a small exhibit on the Guale, the history of the fort, and the sawmill industry, which once made Darien a thriving hub of commerce.  Impressive finds made during a 1952 dig are on display: several finely-detailed pottery sherds, projectile points, part of a dugout canoe, and a few nearly complete bowls, one of which was found with a number of tiny burnt corn cobs still intact inside.

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corn cobs in Native American pottery in the Fort King George museum. These cobs were preserved because they were burned.

Unfortunately, the 1994 exhibit has never been updated and fails to provide context or provenance for the objects, which are simply identified as “Indian pottery.” (Perhaps attempting to identify and describe the artifacts would be a possible future project for an enterprising archaeology student?)

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“Indian pottery” display at Fort King George

A self-playing 10-minute video dates to 1994, and is also in need of updating, although the prints by 18th century French artist and cartographer Jacques LeMoyne, who sketched the Timucuan people of coastal GA and northern FL, add some perspective to the video and exhibit.

Most of the City of Darien was burned by Union forces in 1863, so there are few historic buildings left in the downtown.  Those that remain include the First African Baptist Church at 500 Market Street.  Founded in 1822 and built in 1834, the church was burned in Sherman’s March, then rebuilt on the same site after the Civil War in 1868. Self-guided tours are available.

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First African Baptist Church, Darien, Georgia

On the downtown waterfront are 19th century tabby ruins and the oldest commercial building still remaining in Darien—the Adam-Strain building on First Street.   A once-thriving cotton warehouse and ship chandlery built between 1813 and 1815, the structure has long been empty and abandoned.

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Tabby ruins at the Adam-Strain building in Darien, Georgia

Across the Darien River, south of town on US 17, is Butler Island.  Now part of the Altamaha Waterfowl Management Area, it was a rice plantation constructed by Major Pierce Butler—or rather, by his many slaves–in the 1790s, then passed to his grandson, also Pierce Butler, at his death in 1822.  (Pierce the elder was born in Ireland, and despite ostensible reservations about slavery and the slave trade, never freed his own slaves and introduced the loathsome Fugitive Slave Clause to the U.S. Constitution.)

The grandson brought his bride, Fanny Kemble, a well-known actress of the time, to live there, but Fanny hated the place and in particular, the cruel treatment of enslaved people by her husband’s overseer, Roswell King Jr.  (King subsequently moved to north Georgia, and founded the town of Roswell.)  Fanny returned to her native England and published “Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation, 1838-9,” credited with preventing Britain from entering into a treaty with the Confederacy, and wakening many to the evils of slavery.

That evil provides a tragic connection between Darien and Savannah.  After major financial losses, Butler sold 439 human beings in 1859 near what is now Brock Elementary School.  The largest sale of enslaved people ever in the U.S., it was known as the “Weeping Time”—not only for the tears shed by the families who were destroyed, but by the sky itself, which wept bitter tears of rain on Savannah that day.

Of the Butler Plantation, only the rice mill and smoke stack remain, but the dairy and a two-story residence built in 1927 by T.L. Huston, half owner of the New York Yankees, also still stand.  Drive down into the former rice fields to see bald eagles, a variety of herons, and the occasional roseate spoonbill or wood stork.

Part of another plantation owner’s property survives on Hwy 99, just north of Darien.  Ashantilly,  known also as “Old Tabby,”  was built in 1820 as the mainland home of Thomas Spalding, part owner of nearby Sapelo Island’s Chocolate Plantation, and a wealthy cotton planter who introduced sugar cane and sugar manufacturing to Georgia. The house was named for Ashantilly Castle, the family’s ancestral home in Scotland.  Subsequent owners made changes to the exterior, and the house was gutted by fire in 1937.  The owner at the time, William Haynes, a small letterpress printer, artist, and environmentalist, established the Ashantilly Press on the property.  It survives, and still produces small press notecards and other items.  Donated by the family, the site is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

395002-1289578 - Carol Rice - Sep 15, 2017 1116 AM - #7 Ashantilly


Ashantilly hosts historic, educational, and cultural events, as well as artists in residence and the annual fall sale of native plants.  Spalding’s dour portrait hangs in the former dining room, where dedicated volunteers provide complimentary (and delicious!) homemade refreshments during public events.

A day trip to Sapelo Island, off the coast of north McIntosh County, is another great option.  Catch the ferry at the Meridian dock, 1766 Landing Rd SE, off Hwy 99.  The ferry leaves at 8:30 am, M-F, and 9 am on weekends, but plan to be there at least half an hour in advance, especially on weekends or holidays, as tickets are first come, first served.  Cost is $15 round-trip, cash or check only.

If you book a tour of the island in advance, you’ll be met at the Sapelo dock by an ancient school bus, driven by a member of the historic African-American community of Hog Hammock.  Community members are descendants of the enslaved people on Thomas Spalding’s plantation. Spaulding bought the south end of the island in 1802.

The plantation house is now known as the Reynolds Mansion, having been renovated by Detroit auto magnate Howard Coffin in the 1920s, and again by Richard J. Reynolds, Jr., the tobacco heir, who bought most of the island in 1934. Reynolds endowed research and preservation on the island, and his widow sold their holdings to the state after his death.  The mansion, with numerous murals and marble sculptures, as well as the famous “circus room,” is open for tours with advance booking.  Your local guide will also show you the wild and beautiful Nanny Goat Beach, Hog Hammock community, island lighthouse, and UGA’s Marine Institute.

Less frequently-offered, but perhaps more interesting for archaeology students, is the tour of the island’s north end, featuring the Chocolate Plantation (actually the remains of tabby slave cabins and a 1920s barn built by Howard Coffin) and the once-huge Sapelo shell rings, middens left by the Guale people more than 4,000 years ago.  A full day trip of the north end, led by DNR naturalists, is next scheduled for Sat. Nov. 11 at 9 am.  Cost is $40 for the full day tour.  Bring bug spray, water, and lunch or heavy snacks, as there are few public facilities and no restaurants on the island.

395002-1289578 - Carol Rice - Sep 15, 2017 1116 AM - #8 tabby cabin

Tabby cabin on Sapelo Island, part of Chocolate Plantation


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Shell mound on Sapelo Island

McIntosh County is definitely worth a day trip for those who would like to learn more about the history of coastal Georgia beyond the confines of our own historic city.  For more information on Darien and McIntosh County, Buddy Sullivan, former director of the Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve, is a wealth of knowledge.


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The Dirt on Archaeology

To celebrate the last day of classes (unless you are an unfortunate soul with Friday classes), we have another student blog post. JC Jones gives us the Dirt on Archaeology.

That’s right we’re talking about the dirt, or more appropriately soil. Specifically the layers of the soil. Its most commonly associated with the passage of time. Different layers in the ground are slowly deposited over time, and eventually this leads to distinct layers. When I was working at the Benedictine Monastery and Freedmen’s School site, usually the soil was differing shades of gray. It was bland and somewhat disappointing to be honest. In class we heard about how cool stratigraphy could be, and then we finally go out to dig and there is barely any difference.


Test Unit 5 at the Benedictine Monastery and Freedmen’s School showing subtle changes in stratigraphy, or layers of soil and rock.

Then I got the opportunity to participate in a dig at the Sorrel Weed House, and this showed me the second and more useful side to stratigraphy, features! We were working in the carriage house basement, and we had to remove a brick floor to get to the soil layers. Once that was done a major difference in the soil could be seen. Most of the soil was the same color, but to one side of the test pit was a large black semicircle. Basically someone in the past had dug a hole and filled it in again. It’s a fairly simple task, but being able to see that decades later is amazing. Then as we started digging down further, the soil had other changes, and the excavation was done using natural layers. Every dig I’ve ever done has been based on arbitrary levels since there was little variation in the soil, but this was different. These different features and layers had me pondering on how they were created. What did people do to cause this change in the soil, or is this natural? This experience has opened up a whole new area of archaeological investigation to me. I’ll never underappreciate the color of soil again.


Completed test unit at the Sorrel-Weed House, showing more dramatic soil layers and features.

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Dusties: Bottled History

Jake Knudsen combines his love of history with his chosen profession to continue our student series, with his (not late) post, Dusties: Bottled History.

I am a Liberal Studies major with a Theater minor. I currently work in the liquor industry and will be making my career in that industry, so one can definitely wonder how I ended up in an archaeology class. I stumbled across archaeology entirely by accident when taking a class with a teacher I knew I enjoyed from a previous semester. Now I am on my sixth anthropology class and third archaeology class. Since taking these classes, I have been able to view my current career choice in an interesting, archaeological light that has exposed the negative side of bottle trading taking place daily. This really shows some of the incredibly poor ethics within artifact finding.

Let me preface the following statement with this: Being in the liquor industry, I have joined some of these bottle trading groups to keep up with current market trends and to see what the popular selling items are at the moment. There are several groups on Facebook that condone the sale and trade of alcoholic beverages, which is remarkably illegal but is also not allowed on Facebook. I do not buy or sell on any of these groups. That being said, on these websites, I have seen some INCREDIBLE bottles chock full of some incredible history. Commonly referred to as “dusties” these bottles are anywhere from 30 to 130 years old. I have seen bottles that have been recently discontinued and bottles that are pre-prohibition. I have even seen bottles that were from the early era of the George Washington Distillery.

People know that these “dusties” are worth a large amount of money and do not hesitate to sell them or auction them off for high dollar. I’ve seen people trade pre-prohibition bottles for cars. It breaks my heart that an industry full of such rich history also faces same the difficulties and unethical practices historians and archaeologists face on a daily basis, but unfortunately this will be a problem until people all start to take action together. Here are a few resources you can contact if you find bottles or archaeological artifacts that pertain to the liquor industry or if you are searching for information to help prevent the “secondary market trading” and the unethical practices faced worldwide. If you find artifacts that you have questions about, contact the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States, also known as DISCUS. DISCUS has been around for 75 years and has one of the largest, most thorough histories of distilled spirits in the United States. You can also contact the Kentucky Distillers Association, also known as the KDA. The staff at the KDA redefines professionalism and respect for all things bourbon and bourbon history and would be able to help with identifying artifacts and potential ground breaking discoveries.

Practice good ethics when you are out in the field. By taking artifacts and pieces of history away from their proper resting place, you have the possibility of leaving holes in the timeline. Practice good ethics and when in doubt, if you are not sure if something important- JUST ASK!

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Reconstructing the Past

Last* in our student series is Ashley Johnston. Ashley reports on her class project, reconstructing ceramic and glass vessels from the sherds found on a site. Here she looks at how techniques have changed over time.

Archaeologists uncover hundreds of thousands of artifacts, and at times these artifacts can be reconstructed to form a complete or semi-complete object. The process of piecing these puzzles back together has changed over the years, as better technology and products were developed, and as procedures changed to preserve the integrity of the item. A handbook from the 1970s is going to include techniques different from a book from the early 2000s or current websites. Determining which sources to consult when conducting research or reconstructing an object can prove to be a challenge.

One example specifically involving ceramics is the type of tape used for temporarily holding the vessels together before gluing the sherds permanently. The 1976 handbook simply says to use tape or a temporary glue, whereas a current website and a 2003 book say to use masking tape. However, masking tape can leave residue on the artifact, while electrical tape can be left on the object longer and not leave residue behind. What about filling in the gaps where sherds are missing? Both the 1976 and 2003 books suggest using plaster to fill in the holes. The website notes that archaeologists do not always find all the pieces for a complete reconstruction but does not say whether or not to complete the object. By leaving the voids in the object it not only adds character to the artifact, but also preserves its integrity.

Currently, in the Anthropology lab at Armstrong, there are two objects under reconstruction, a kerosene lamp from the Benedictine Monastery site, and a teapot on loan from the Savannah History Museum collections found at Old Fort Jackson in 1970s. The best sources to consult when reconstructing historical artifacts are archaeologists and curators who will know the updated procedures and techniques for that particular artifact type.

Sources Consulted:

Ewen, Charles Robin, Artifacts. Vol. 4. Archaeologist’s Toolkit. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 2003.

Guldbeck, Per E., The Care of Historical Collections: A Conservation Handbook for the Nonspecialist. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1976.

Intrigue of the Past: Mending pottery.” Learn NC. Accessed April 01, 2017. A resource for K-12 teachers.


 *unless some students turn in late work.
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Visiting Colonial Park Cemetery

Victor Richardson is next in our student series. He visited Colonial Park Cemetery and discusses the deep history of this site.

One may think that I would have either a fear, dislike, or even a phobia for cemeteries, because I grew up living across the street from a cemetery and have several relatives, including my dad, buried there. But I happened to travel near Colonial Park Cemetery located in the heart of Downtown Savannah (201 Abercorn St). The fact that this is a historical landmark in the city, and myself a history major at Armstrong State University, it gathered my special attention.

Among the reasons that Colonial Park attracted me would be that it is the final resting place for a who’s who of the Savannah’s well respected citizens and heroes. These include Button Gwinnett (one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence), Archibald Bulloch (1st president of Georgia), and Colonel John S. McIntosh (a hero of the War in Mexico). These citizens have schools, roads, and even counties named in their honor such as Button Gwinnett Elementary in Hinesville, Ga, Bullock County in Statesboro, Ga, and McIntosh County in Darien, Ga.

Colonial Park Cemetery was established in 1750 and was once a burial ground for the Christ Church Parish. Over the years it has been enlarged to become the burial place for all denominations as well as a historical park. In my Historical Archaeological class, we are required to study principles of archaeology in order to preserve our historical past, how it relates to our present, and how it can affect our future.

Walking through this historical landmark, I have come across quite a few items that would make for great archaeology such as sidewalks with lots of shells embedded in them. Many of the tombstones of the citizens from the 18th century that are now decaying, barely legible, and would probably also make for archaeological studies.

As of June of 2016, there has been a petition to get the city of Savannah to issue an Archaeological Ordinance in order to protect archaeological resources and historical areas like Colonial Park Cemetery from being lost and destroyed.


Learn more about the petition in a Savannah Morning News article, Letter to the Editor, and an Op-Ed.

Learn more about Colonial Park Cemetery.

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