The Dirt on Archaeology

To celebrate the last day of classes (unless you are an unfortunate soul with Friday classes), we have another student blog post. JC Jones gives us the Dirt on Archaeology.

That’s right we’re talking about the dirt, or more appropriately soil. Specifically the layers of the soil. Its most commonly associated with the passage of time. Different layers in the ground are slowly deposited over time, and eventually this leads to distinct layers. When I was working at the Benedictine Monastery and Freedmen’s School site, usually the soil was differing shades of gray. It was bland and somewhat disappointing to be honest. In class we heard about how cool stratigraphy could be, and then we finally go out to dig and there is barely any difference.

IMG_0270

Test Unit 5 at the Benedictine Monastery and Freedmen’s School showing subtle changes in stratigraphy, or layers of soil and rock.

Then I got the opportunity to participate in a dig at the Sorrel Weed House, and this showed me the second and more useful side to stratigraphy, features! We were working in the carriage house basement, and we had to remove a brick floor to get to the soil layers. Once that was done a major difference in the soil could be seen. Most of the soil was the same color, but to one side of the test pit was a large black semicircle. Basically someone in the past had dug a hole and filled it in again. It’s a fairly simple task, but being able to see that decades later is amazing. Then as we started digging down further, the soil had other changes, and the excavation was done using natural layers. Every dig I’ve ever done has been based on arbitrary levels since there was little variation in the soil, but this was different. These different features and layers had me pondering on how they were created. What did people do to cause this change in the soil, or is this natural? This experience has opened up a whole new area of archaeological investigation to me. I’ll never underappreciate the color of soil again.

IMG_0345.JPG

Completed test unit at the Sorrel-Weed House, showing more dramatic soil layers and features.

Categories: Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Dusties: Bottled History

Jake Knudsen combines his love of history with his chosen profession to continue our student series, with his (not late) post, Dusties: Bottled History.

I am a Liberal Studies major with a Theater minor. I currently work in the liquor industry and will be making my career in that industry, so one can definitely wonder how I ended up in an archaeology class. I stumbled across archaeology entirely by accident when taking a class with a teacher I knew I enjoyed from a previous semester. Now I am on my sixth anthropology class and third archaeology class. Since taking these classes, I have been able to view my current career choice in an interesting, archaeological light that has exposed the negative side of bottle trading taking place daily. This really shows some of the incredibly poor ethics within artifact finding.

Let me preface the following statement with this: Being in the liquor industry, I have joined some of these bottle trading groups to keep up with current market trends and to see what the popular selling items are at the moment. There are several groups on Facebook that condone the sale and trade of alcoholic beverages, which is remarkably illegal but is also not allowed on Facebook. I do not buy or sell on any of these groups. That being said, on these websites, I have seen some INCREDIBLE bottles chock full of some incredible history. Commonly referred to as “dusties” these bottles are anywhere from 30 to 130 years old. I have seen bottles that have been recently discontinued and bottles that are pre-prohibition. I have even seen bottles that were from the early era of the George Washington Distillery.

People know that these “dusties” are worth a large amount of money and do not hesitate to sell them or auction them off for high dollar. I’ve seen people trade pre-prohibition bottles for cars. It breaks my heart that an industry full of such rich history also faces same the difficulties and unethical practices historians and archaeologists face on a daily basis, but unfortunately this will be a problem until people all start to take action together. Here are a few resources you can contact if you find bottles or archaeological artifacts that pertain to the liquor industry or if you are searching for information to help prevent the “secondary market trading” and the unethical practices faced worldwide. If you find artifacts that you have questions about, contact the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States, also known as DISCUS. DISCUS has been around for 75 years and has one of the largest, most thorough histories of distilled spirits in the United States. You can also contact the Kentucky Distillers Association, also known as the KDA. The staff at the KDA redefines professionalism and respect for all things bourbon and bourbon history and would be able to help with identifying artifacts and potential ground breaking discoveries.

Practice good ethics when you are out in the field. By taking artifacts and pieces of history away from their proper resting place, you have the possibility of leaving holes in the timeline. Practice good ethics and when in doubt, if you are not sure if something important- JUST ASK!

Categories: Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , | Leave a comment

Reconstructing the Past

Last* in our student series is Ashley Johnston. Ashley reports on her class project, reconstructing ceramic and glass vessels from the sherds found on a site. Here she looks at how techniques have changed over time.

Archaeologists uncover hundreds of thousands of artifacts, and at times these artifacts can be reconstructed to form a complete or semi-complete object. The process of piecing these puzzles back together has changed over the years, as better technology and products were developed, and as procedures changed to preserve the integrity of the item. A handbook from the 1970s is going to include techniques different from a book from the early 2000s or current websites. Determining which sources to consult when conducting research or reconstructing an object can prove to be a challenge.

One example specifically involving ceramics is the type of tape used for temporarily holding the vessels together before gluing the sherds permanently. The 1976 handbook simply says to use tape or a temporary glue, whereas a current website and a 2003 book say to use masking tape. However, masking tape can leave residue on the artifact, while electrical tape can be left on the object longer and not leave residue behind. What about filling in the gaps where sherds are missing? Both the 1976 and 2003 books suggest using plaster to fill in the holes. The website notes that archaeologists do not always find all the pieces for a complete reconstruction but does not say whether or not to complete the object. By leaving the voids in the object it not only adds character to the artifact, but also preserves its integrity.

Currently, in the Anthropology lab at Armstrong, there are two objects under reconstruction, a kerosene lamp from the Benedictine Monastery site, and a teapot on loan from the Savannah History Museum collections found at Old Fort Jackson in 1970s. The best sources to consult when reconstructing historical artifacts are archaeologists and curators who will know the updated procedures and techniques for that particular artifact type.

Sources Consulted:

Ewen, Charles Robin, Artifacts. Vol. 4. Archaeologist’s Toolkit. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 2003.

Guldbeck, Per E., The Care of Historical Collections: A Conservation Handbook for the Nonspecialist. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History, 1976.

Intrigue of the Past: Mending pottery.” Learn NC. Accessed April 01, 2017. A resource for K-12 teachers.

 

 *unless some students turn in late work.
Categories: Uncategorized | Tags: , , , | Leave a comment

Visiting Colonial Park Cemetery

Victor Richardson is next in our student series. He visited Colonial Park Cemetery and discusses the deep history of this site.

One may think that I would have either a fear, dislike, or even a phobia for cemeteries, because I grew up living across the street from a cemetery and have several relatives, including my dad, buried there. But I happened to travel near Colonial Park Cemetery located in the heart of Downtown Savannah (201 Abercorn St). The fact that this is a historical landmark in the city, and myself a history major at Armstrong State University, it gathered my special attention.

Among the reasons that Colonial Park attracted me would be that it is the final resting place for a who’s who of the Savannah’s well respected citizens and heroes. These include Button Gwinnett (one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence), Archibald Bulloch (1st president of Georgia), and Colonel John S. McIntosh (a hero of the War in Mexico). These citizens have schools, roads, and even counties named in their honor such as Button Gwinnett Elementary in Hinesville, Ga, Bullock County in Statesboro, Ga, and McIntosh County in Darien, Ga.

Colonial Park Cemetery was established in 1750 and was once a burial ground for the Christ Church Parish. Over the years it has been enlarged to become the burial place for all denominations as well as a historical park. In my Historical Archaeological class, we are required to study principles of archaeology in order to preserve our historical past, how it relates to our present, and how it can affect our future.

Walking through this historical landmark, I have come across quite a few items that would make for great archaeology such as sidewalks with lots of shells embedded in them. Many of the tombstones of the citizens from the 18th century that are now decaying, barely legible, and would probably also make for archaeological studies.

As of June of 2016, there has been a petition to get the city of Savannah to issue an Archaeological Ordinance in order to protect archaeological resources and historical areas like Colonial Park Cemetery from being lost and destroyed.

Bibliography:

Learn more about the petition in a Savannah Morning News article, Letter to the Editor, and an Op-Ed.

Learn more about Colonial Park Cemetery.

Categories: Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Heritage and Symbolism

Next in our student series, Maddie Dinges explores how we live with historic symbols and co-exist with the past everyday.

When touring a new city, we can follow history and heritage through it’s symbols, signs, and stories. Look closely or you’ll miss it! In this context, the history is literally written in the streets. Ever heard of the “Fleur de Lis”? This is a French term which can be translated to “Flower Lily” (pictured below).

IMG_0582

Fleur de Lis iron work

This symbol can be found on gates, signs, and many other places! Because of its French relation, we can gather that the French migrated to the area. The Fleur de Lis is the symbol of the New Orleans Saints. This symbol can also be seen on flags; the flag of Quebec and Detroit. If you’ll notice, the places that I have named are locations that were previously settled by the French. Go figure!

Throughout the 1800s in Savannah, Georgia, a terrible epidemic struck the heart of the city; the gruesome yellow fever. We can see the history of its destruction throughout the city. This past October, the Davenport House put on a play following Georgia’s first female physician, Mary Lavinder, as she tries to cure those suffering from the yellow fever. Cool stuff! You can also find a sign in Colonial Park cemetery honoring the lives lost from the yellow fever epidemic (many of whom a buried there).

IMG_0583

Yellow fever sign in Colonial Park Cemetery

Another way we can learn more about an area is through the stories the locals tell. According to legend there is a tunnel under the old Candler hospital (now a law school) where the victims of yellow fever were deposited. The thought is that if they limited the exposure to the outside world, the less people will be effected. Supposedly these tunnels run under Forsyth Park. BEWARE OF THE GHOSTS.

For more information about symbols and signs, check these links out!

Irish heritage in Savannah

Georgia’s State Symbols

Categories: Uncategorized | 1 Comment

Skeptic to Convert

Joshua Glossop continues our student series. He describes his experience at digging at the monastery site and how it changed his mind about archaeology.

Upon enrolling into a Historical Archaeology class that I needed to graduate this upcoming May, I was slightly skeptical about taking the class, as archaeology wasn’t really a keen interest of mine. However, it was a requirement for my major, and I needed it so therefore, I took it. Since taking the class this semester, I can honestly say how much my view in Historical Archaeology has changed completely. I have really found an enjoyment in connecting history with archaeological evidence found in fieldwork sites. I like to see myself as a young Indiana Jones nowadays. Like so many other colleges classes I have previously taken, I thought this class was going to be a boring lecture based class, however, I was surprised to see there was a frequent amount of field work opportunities, which caught my interest. Therefore, this blog post is all about my first visit to an active archaeology site in which I was going to engage in historical archaeology for the first time. I hope to also portray my thoughts of how this visit changed my view on the study of historical archaeology and hopefully influence others too.

On the 28th of January, 2017, which turned out to be a very chilly Saturday morning, I headed to the Benedictine Monastery and Freedmen School archaeology site on Skidaway Island. The site that we are still excavating is on The Landings housing estate on Skidaway Island. Upon arriving I was a little bit lost as I arrived slightly before the agreed time and couldn’t find any of my classmates or professor. I was expecting to see a scene from Jurassic Park where mobile offices surrounded a huge area in which the excavation was taking place. However, my imagination was proved wrong, and it turned out to be a wooded area within a group of houses. I asked myself am I in the right place? A few minutes later the rest of my classmates and my Professor arrived, this put my heart at rest as all the equipment was unloaded from numerous cars. The equipment consisted of buckets, shovels, and sieving tools. Walking through the wooded area, it was clearly visible that a unit (a term for the area dug) was already in the ground, and it was shielded with a rectangle of string showing the area of the dig. The unit was about 4 feet deep and some pipe work was on display in the depths of the pit. This sight encouraged me to a great extent and made me excited for the activity which lay ahead.

After a short briefing, I was assigned to begin a new unit, number 6. The Pythagorean theorem was applied to work out an area that was mathematically accurate. My area was roughly about 6 feet by 3 feet. [Editor’s note: units are 1×2 meters. Using the Pythagorean theorem insures we get a true rectangle or square with right angles.] All the information about the unit was put on a form for future records. Now it was time to get our hands really dirty as the excavation of the unit officially begun. The removing of dirt is an extremely careful exercise, as I removed the dirt it had to be placed on top of the large sieving tools to search for any artefacts present. A classmate performed the sieving. I wasn’t expecting to find anything on the first layer, which we planned to be 10 centimetres deep, however, I was astonished by the amount of artefacts that were coming out of the unit. After even 5 centimetres, we already collected several bags of artifacts, which was anything from glass, to nails, to brick and mortar. It was not until I saw the artifacts that I had dug up and found that it really dawned on me how exciting the activity of archaeology really is. After a whole morning of work, my classmate and I had managed to get the first layer of 10 centimetres dug. From this we had a vast number of artefacts ready to be sent to the lab and washed. The most exciting artifact which had been recovered was a mixture of metal springs, which after future excavations turned out to be bed springs. This was potentially a bed the monks slept on during the late 19th century. For me this experience was very exciting and a real sense of achievement was felt by the end of the morning’s work.

It wasn’t until the following evening that I had really made the connection with history and archaeology. Without archaeology, how can we prove history to be false or true? I have previously learnt of the term sankofa, which is from the Ghanaian language of Akan. It translates to the concept of “reclaiming the past and understanding how the present came to be so we can move forward.” Therefore, after my first initial experience with archaeology it made me realise that the practise provides a bridge that connects us to the past of our ancestors, and then the current time we live in, and potentially the future. It was also great to experience this first hand in the local area where I have been gaining my university education. If in the future you get a chance to visit the Benedictine Monastery and Freedmen’s School archaeology site on Skidaway Island, please do, it opened my eyes to making that connection with the past, and I hope it will do the same for you.

Glossop_IMG_1685

The bedsprings right after excavation.

 

Categories: Uncategorized | 1 Comment

The Sorrel-Weed House: Reinterpreting Savannah’s Antebellum History

Next in our student series is Kelly Westfield, who is leading our excavations at the Sorrel-Weed House.

The Sorrel-Weed House is a Greek-Revival mansion located at the corner of Harris and Bull Streets in downtown Savannah. The home, which towers over the northwest portion of Madison Square, was built for Francis Sorrel by Charles B. Cluskey and was completed about 1841. As the grandeur of the home suggests, with its three generous stories, multiple verandahs, elaborate ceiling medallions, and copious iron work, it was built for one of Savannah’s elite during a prosperous era in the city’s history, made possible largely by agriculture and slave labor. Francis Sorrel was a wealthy merchant and cotton factor, and like many of his contemporaries, a slave owner. The detached living quarters and former carriage house that sit directly behind the home are a living reminder of this. Built in the stately house’s shadow just a short distance across a narrow garden, the carriage house was likely where many of the home’s former slaves lived and worked.

Desirous of getting some hands-on experience in the field in my Historical Archaeology class this semester, I met with Professor Seifert to discuss possible projects. My interest was timed perfectly; the Sorrel-Weed House staff had just recently approached Professor Seifert about conducting an archaeological study in the basement of the carriage house to uncover the source of a curious depression in the floor. It was decided in January that we would dig one test unit in the basement, and over the course of four weekends between February and March, thanks to the generous help and expertise of my fellow classmates and Professor Seifert, we completed the first official archaeological excavation ever undertaken at the Sorrel-Weed Home. We are currently still processing the artifacts and other data, and a report will be forthcoming in April.

The Sorrel-Weed House currently operates as a “must-see” site in Savannah’s ghost tour industry. In fact—it’s probably better described as the must-see site for paranormal activity, notorious not just in Savannah but in the Southern United States. Sorrel family oral tradition describes tragic events, which are the foundation of the site’s public interpretation programs, are believed to hold the answers to these hauntings, and, it was theorized, to the cause the depression in the carriage house basement floor. As the story goes, Francis Sorrel’s wife was overcome by the grief of her husband’s affair with one of his slaves. In her despair, she took her own life by leaping from the home’s third floor balcony. Her death was followed shortly thereafter by that of the slave, Francis Sorrel’s ‘mistress’, found hung in the upper level of the carriage house, and as it is rumored, not by her own hand. For reasons that can only be guessed at, it was thought that the unfortunate slave was then interred underneath the basement floor.

We were guided by two notions going into this project. First, it was unlikely, and would be nothing short of extraordinary, that we would find human remains. Secondly, this was potentially a great opportunity to learn more about urban slavery in Savannah. As we had predicted, our excavations did not uncover any human remains, but we did discover the cause of the depression: a long, deep, subfloor pit. Our test unit did not run the length of the feature, but we hope to return in an upcoming semester and trowel our way through its remaining portion.

Although we did not find any artifacts to corroborate the tragic oral tradition about the Sorrel family, the story unequivocally illustrates pervasive and profound experiences in Savannah’s past. I would be lying if I said I came to this realization right away; for certain, the allure of the stately home and the sheer opportunity we were given preoccupied me from understanding the bigger picture. No doubt, my experience mirrors that of many visitors to the Sorrel-Weed House. But as I buried myself in research, I realized that even if we did not find any artifacts to corroborate the unfortunate events in the home’s history, the oral tradition and the site’s interpretation program have major implications for several painful realities in Savannah’s history. Sexual exploitation by slave owners, unilateral extramarital affairs, oppressive gender codes, and brutality towards slaves, including what would today be considered murder, were legion in the Antebellum South. These historical realities transcend ghost stories and the mystique of Antebellum mansions, and they are facets of our history that archaeology has the potential to teach us more about.

The Sorrel-Weed House project and the class itself has made me more culturally aware, and by doing so has fulfilled one of the most valuable goals of archaeological studies. More importantly, my experience is one that can occur on a larger level; when projects like ours continue to be undertaken and are open to the public, they have the ability to impart a larger cultural awareness within the community. When I imagine the experiences of the women in the Home’s oral tradition, and think about how I might have managed in their positions, I feel sadness and compassion for them, and the countless others who endured the same circumstances. I also now feel strongly that historians and archaeologists have an ethical responsibility to continue to learn more about these women and other muted groups, and to retell their stories. Future excavations at the Sorrel-Weed House have the potential to do just this. In the meantime, I would like to extend many thanks to Professor Seifert and to the folks at the Sorrel-Weed House for their unremitting hospitality and for seeking us out for archaeological investigations at their site.

Categories: Uncategorized | Tags: , , , | Leave a comment

Washing Artifacts, the Interview

Madison Williams continues our student series of posts by interviewing Chase Freeman about working with artifacts.

An insight on the cleaning of the artifacts

When most people think of archaeology, they tend to picture people with shovels and screens excavating a site and collecting all of the artifacts they find. But what happens next? Chase Freeman, a Liberal Arts Major and a Biology and Anthropology Minor, provides us with some insight into the next step of the process. After the artifacts are collected at the site, they are then taken to the Anthropology Lab, University Hall 255 on campus. There they are lightly scrubbed with a toothbrush and water, then laid down on screens to dry.

Chase is Ms. Seifert’s Undergraduate Research Assistant and is in charge of cleaning the artifacts that are found on each site. I recently conducted an interview with Chase, and asked him a few questions concerning the next step. (All artifacts discussed refer to the ones found at the Benedictine Monastery and Freedmen’s School.)

When did you first become interested in archaeology?

“I became particularly interested in archaeology when I took the Archaeology of the Southeast class with Ms. Seifert in the spring of 2016.”

How do you organize the artifacts?

“Right now we are organizing them by test unit, level, and they are placed separately on the screen by what they are. We have to come back to catalog everything and organize it more specifically.”

On average, how often do you find an artifact that has the “wow” factor?

“Um, fairly often actually. There’s always something that is significant to the site that either confirms or refutes our beliefs about the site.”

What is the most interesting thing you have found thus far?

“I get this question a lot. I’m going to have to stick to the kerosene lamp. I found it intact in the ground, but it shattered when I tried to remove it. We are reconstructing it now to see what info we can gain. Also, the Benedictine Monk robe clip because that’s the first sign of a Benedictine presence.” [editor’s note: the lamp was found broken in situ, meaning all of the pieces were found already broken, but roughly in place]

Does it ever get stressful handling all of the artifacts?

“Only recently, it’s gotten crazy keeping up with everyone wanting to help. The amount of volunteers is very impressive and also very helpful. I cannot stress that enough. Whether you’re on the site digging or in the lab cleaning, all of your help means so much.”

Thank you Chase for giving us an insight on the cleaning of the artifacts. I hope to hear more of the findings after the artifacts are analyzed more intensely.

Categories: Uncategorized | 1 Comment

Davenport House: Using Archaeology to Enhance Interpretation

Next in our student blogging series is Rebecca Hinely, who writes about her visit to the Davenport House. This historic home has recently used archaeology to learn more about the Davenport family and other who have lived in this house.

Davenport House: Using Archaeology to Enhance Interpretation

If you want to have a wonderful time while enjoying a little of Savannah’s history, you should visit The Davenport House. This beautiful example of architecture was built in 1820 for Isaiah Davenport and his ever growing family. Over the years it has served many purposes from being a family home to being used as a boarding house until it was finally purchased by the Historic Savannah Foundation. The Davenport House is currently open as a historic museum, which allows you to see the beauty of architecture and interior design from the 1800’s.

This home marked one of Savannah’s most important movements. When the city of Savannah marked it for demolition in 1955, a few citizens came together and decided to form a group dedicated to preserving Savannah’s beautiful history. This group became the Historic Savannah Foundation and is responsible for most of the beautiful historic homes that are still standing in Savannah today.

In 2013, plans to make changes to the basement prompted archaeological research of the property. By using GPR, or Ground Penetrating Radar, along with historical documents, archaeologists were able to identify five areas ideal for excavating. These areas were in the garden as the basement proved to be void of artifacts other than small features relating to the construction of the house and modern anomalies such as water pipes and drainage.
Some of the artifacts found included animal bones, brick and mortar, glass, tobacco pipes and of course oyster shells, which were a major construction material in 1800’s Savannah as an ingredient in tabby. One of the most interesting finds was a privy near the edge of the property that was not included on any of the historical documents. The results of the fieldwork in 2013 helped paint a picture of Davenport’s life and others like him who lived in the 1800’s and are currently being used as resources for interpretation at the museum.

It was interesting to see the home that started the historical preservation movement in Savannah. Without the efforts of these few people Savannah may not be the historic landmark we know today.

Categories: Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Savannah Archaeology in Perspective

Next in our student series is Pamela Imholz, who has worked on the Benedictine Monastery and Freedmen School site from the beginning and gives us a wider perspective.

My interest in archaeology started later in life after I had visited sites from England to Turkey from 1997 through 2004. The breadth and sophistication of the architecture that had been excavated from the Roman empire was very impressive, from Bath, England to Ephesus, Turkey. Returning to Savannah, I decided I wanted to better understand the history of the people, culture that built America. After doing a lot of reading and visiting some local historical places, I decided to “go back to school” and enrolled in Armstrong State University (it was Armstrong Atlantic State University at that time) in their 62+ program. Several semesters later I have had the opportunity of participating in many field trips and excavation projects with the Professors and students here.

Starting in the Spring of 2016, our archaeology class had the opportunity to excavate an area on Skidaway Island that was believed to be the site of the Benedictine Monastery and Freedmen School of the 1870’s, after the end of the Civil War. The location is the future site of a home construction, so we were given permission to work the site before it was destroyed. Based on the research done by our Professor, a 40 by 40 foot grid was laid out on the lot. Twenty five shovel test pits were dug on the site. Several of these shovel test pits uncovered artifacts from a wide range of years, from Native American ceramics to artifacts from more modern times. We did, however, find evidence that suggested the approximate location of the Benedictine Monastery as well as the School. In the fall of 2016, excavation pits of 1 by 2 meters were dug at the location thought to be the Monastery. This semester, spring 2017, we started digging pits of the same size at the site believed to be the school.

Our hope is to find artifacts that enable us to better understand the lifestyle and environment that the Benedictine Monks and Freedmen students experienced as well as document and preserve this bit of history. While no local stakeholders from the original student group have been identified, we have reached out to the Benedictine Military School here in Savannah as well as St. Vincent’s Archabbey  in Latrobe, PA. A team of cadets have participated in two of our work weekends and have found many very interesting artifacts, including a Native American projectile point, pottery sherds, and a brass button, which fueled their interest and excitement of being part of an historical archaeology work site. Father Andrew, the St. Vincent’s Archabbey Archivist in PA, has also visited the site and identified an artifact that appears to be the metal “clasp” used to hold the Cope (a cape-like liturgical vestment) that was worn by the priests during Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. Needless to say this was exciting for all of us!!

img_0165

Cope hook, or clasp for a cape-like liturgical vestment worn by monks during a benediction, found on site at the Benedictine Monastery and Freedmen School.

If Savannah is going to save its history from further destruction by developers, it is important that the local citizens become interested and active in letting the local politicians know the importance of Historical Archaeology. What better way than getting our young citizens involved as well?

Categories: Uncategorized | 2 Comments

Blog at WordPress.com.